Tuesday, February 2, 2016

[Editorial # 55] Towards a law on euthanasia : The Hindu

[Following editorial has been published in The Hindu on 2nd February 2016. Read through it and try to answer the questions that follow. Please do not copy and paste answers. The objective of this exercise is to get you in the groove of answer-writing. Try to write in your own words. Don't hesitate to write in a bulleted-format, if you are uncomfortable in writing in paragraph form.]

The time for legislation to deal with euthanasia has come. The Union government has now informed a Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court that its experts are examining a draft Bill proposed by the Law Commission in its 241st report. However, it has been advised by the Law Ministry to hold back its enactment now, as the matter is pending before the court. Over a decade ago, the government felt that legislation on euthanasia would amount to doctors violating the Hippocratic Oath and that they should not yield to a patient’s “fleeting desire out of transient depression” to die. The government’s latest stand represents forward movement in the quest for a legislative framework to deal with the question whether patients who are terminally ill and possibly beyond the scope of medical revival can be allowed to die with dignity. The question was raised with a great deal of passion in the case of Aruna Shanbaug, a nurse who lay in a vegetative state in a Mumbai hospital between 1973 and 2015. In a landmark 2011 verdict that was notable for its progressive, humane and sensitive treatment of the complex interplay of individual dignity and social ethics, the Supreme Court laid down a broad legal framework. It ruled out any backing for active euthanasia, or the taking of a specific step such as injecting the patient with a lethal substance, to put an end to a patient’s suffering, as that would be clearly illegal. It allowed ‘passive euthanasia’, or the withdrawal of life support, subject to safeguards and fair procedure. It made it mandatory that every instance should get the approval of a High Court Bench, based on consultation with a panel of medical experts.


The question now before a Constitution Bench on a petition by the NGO Common Cause is whether the right to live with dignity under Article 21 includes the right to die with dignity, and whether it is time to allow ‘living wills’, or written authorisations containing instructions given by persons in a healthy state of mind to doctors that they need not be put on life-support systems or ventilators in the event of their going into a persistent vegetative state or state of terminal illness. The government’s reply shows that the Directorate-General of Health Services has proposed legislation based on the recommendations of an Experts’ Committee. The experts have not agreed to active euthanasia because of its potential for misuse and have proposed changes to a draft Bill suggested by the Law Commission. However, there seems to be no support for the idea of a ‘living will’, as the draft says any such document will be ‘void’ and not binding on any medical practitioner. It is logical that it should be so, as the law will be designed specifically to deal with patients not competent to decide for themselves because of their medical condition. This has to be tested against the argument that giving those likely to drift into terminal illness an advance opportunity to make an informed choice will help them avoid “cruel and unwanted treatment” to prolong their lifespan. To resolve this conflict between pain and death, the sooner that a comprehensive law on the subject is enacted, the better it will be for society.

Questions:

1. What is meant by Euthanasia? What is its history? 

2. What are its various types of Euthanasia? 

3. Is Euthanasia legal in India? Which countries in the world have legalised it?

4. What is a Constitutional Bench of Supreme Court? For what reasons is such a bench constituted? Explain with examples.

5. What is Law Commission? How is it constituted? Is it a Constitutional body?

6. What are the ethical concerns related to Euthanasia? 

7. What are the various pros and cons of legalising Euthanasia? 

8. What is an NGO? Under which law/s NGOs are formed? What are the roles of NGOs? Give examples.

9. Do you think Euthanasia falls under the ambit of Art 21 of the Constitution of India? Justify.



37 comments:

  1. 1. EUTHANASIA: - It is primarily an assisted suicide, which is the painless killing of a patient who is facing or suffering the most painful mental or physical adverse conditions (disease). This killing is done with the prior approval and with the 'will' of an individual. Such killings are known as "Mercy Killings" as well.
    HISTORY : - Until the time of Hippocrates, physicians had two duties: one to cure and, if that was not possible, a duty to kill. Infanticide of disabled and sickly babies was also practiced. Judaism considered life to be sacred and equated suicide and euthanasia with murder. Christian teaching opposed euthanasia for the same reason as Judaism, and Islam condemned the practice also. Under Judaeo-Christian and Islamic influence euthanasia and infanticide were condemned until laws began to be relaxed at the end of the 18th century. The first legalization of euthanasia was in 1935 in Nazi German

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  2. 7. MERIT
    Legalizing Euthanasia would arrest the existing deep pain of an individual. Legalization of the Euthanasia would act as the "Gift or Mercy" to all those people who are in the clutches of their unending disease. It will halt the brutal custody of painful and hopeless life, which is forcing them to breath without motivation and willingness. The phrase, "there is a will, there is a way", but suppose if there is 'no more will', definitely there won't be any way.
    One of the big arguments against euthanasia is that it’s irreversible: Once the patient is gone, we’ll never know if their unexpected recovery was just around the corner, or if they might have gone on to lead full and happy lives despite their illness.
    Not only does legalizing euthanasia not significantly shorten life, it’s been proven to actually save lives. In other words, giving a nationwide go-ahead for doctors to legally end their patient’s lives actually halved the number of unwanted deaths.
    Economics factored into their life-or-death decisions. According to CNN, one in every four Medicare dollars spent goes to the five percent of beneficiaries in the last year of their life. For 40 percent of households, the bill exceeds their financial assets.
    A final myth is that legalizing assisted dying will open the floodgates, leading to a murder-happy world where life is cheap and death is easy. But analysis of the data shows that this isn’t the case. For example, every year, roughly 3,000 Dutch people seek to be euthanized. That sounds like a lot, until you realize it accounts for only 1.7 percent of all deaths.
    DEMERIT
    But Legalizing the issue will definitely impulse the Suicide rate of India. Currently it is at 10.11% (government data), and will increase dramatically because almost more than 65% Indian population is students, which commits suicide due to immature decisions.
    Indian scenario Over 16,000 students suicides in the last three years. (According to Health Ministry) Out of every three cases of suicide reported every 15 minutes in India, one is committed by a youth in the age group of 15 to 29. Every 90 minutes a teenager tries to commit suicide in India. Many of these attempts are half-hearted cries for attention, help and love. But every six hours, one succeeds Girls may be more likely to make suicidal attempts, but boys are more likely to make a truly lethal suicide attempt.
    Laws against euthanasia and assisted suicide are in place to prevent abuse and to protect people from unscrupulous doctors and others. They are not, and never have been, intended to make anyone suffer.
    Its a huge loss of the human capital which would not only stagnate the growth of the country, but also discourage and demotivate the young generation, who take bold steps of life and death without attaining maturity level. Such acts ethically halts the mental growth of the human young mind.
    While our society aspires to eradicate discrimination and the most punishing effects of poverty in employment practices, housing, education, and law enforcement, we consistently fall short of our goals. The costs of this failure with assisted suicide and euthanasia would be extreme.
    Doctors have misused euthanasia in the past. There’s no certainty that certain sections of the society, including doctors, will not abuse the law or the provisions.

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  3. 3. Euthanasia is not legal in India.
    Human euthanasia is legal only in the Netherlands, Belgium, Ireland, Colombia and Luxembourg.
    Assisted suicide is legal in Switzerland, Germany, Japan, Albania and in the US states of Washington, Oregon, Vermont, New Mexico, Montana and California

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    Replies
    1. Passive euthanasia is legal in India since March 2011. It has been legalised by Supreme Court.

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  4. 1. What is meant by Euthanasia? What is its history?
    Euthanasia is deliberately ending a person’s life to end their suffering. History of ‘euthanasia’:
    i) First used by a Roman historian Suetonius to describe death of Caesar.
    ii) Was forbidden from time to time in Mesopotamia.
    iii) However, in ancient India, incurable patients were drowned in Ganga. In Israel, frankincense was given to terminal patients.
    iv) In Sparta, physically incapable infants were killed to ‘save’ them from burden of existence.
    v) First objection to euthanasia came from the Hippocratic Oath.
    vi) In Middle Ages in Europe, Christian values forbade the killing of any human.
    vii) During 15th-17th century, Sir Thomas More and Francis Bacon discussed euthanasia.
    viii) In 1794, Prussia passed a law reducing punishment for committing euthanasia.
    ix) In 1828, American law passed outlawing assisted suicide.
    x) The first popular supporter of euthanasia was a teacher Samuel Williams who wrote a paper supporting it in 1870.
    xi) The above paper was ignored by British Medical community until Lionel Tollmache took it up in 1873.
    xii) In 1889, German philosopher Nietsche advocated euthanasia.
    xiii) In 1895, a German lawyer Jost wrote a book stating hopeless people wanting to die should be allowed to do so.
    xiv) In 1920, two German professors released a book advocating ‘killing of people whose lives were devoid of value’.
    xv) In 1933, Nazis replaced Hippocratic Oath with Gesundheit to allow for euthanasia.
    xvi) 1936, the Voluntary euthanasia society was formed in England
    xvii) In 1984, Netherlands Supreme Court approved voluntary euthanasia.
    xviii) In 2000, Netherlands approved voluntary euthanasia.
    xix) 2002, Belgium passed a similar law.
    xx) In 2004, New Zealand prosecuted woman for committing euthanasia.

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    1. will have to mug up all these. no other option.

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    2. if you could add Santhara it would have been better. there is no example from indian perspective.
      the case of Aruna Shanbag who is widely attached to the controversy over euthanasia is missing.

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    3. Bhaskar : please go ahead and add in case you find something missing. Its a platform for everyone of us to share our knowledge.

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    4. Bhaskar : please go ahead and add in case you find something missing. Its a platform for everyone of us to share our knowledge.

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  5. 2. Forms of euthanasia: Euthanasia comes in several different forms, each of which brings a different set of rights and wrongs.
    (i) Active and passive euthanasia
    In active euthanasia a person directly and deliberately causes the patient's death. In passive euthanasia they don't directly take the patient's life, they just allow them to die. Active euthanasia is when death is brought about by an act - for example when a person is killed by being given an overdose of pain-killers. Passive euthanasia is when death is brought about by an omission - i.e. when someone lets the person die. This can be by withdrawing or withholding treatment:
    (ii) Voluntary and involuntary euthanasia
    Voluntary euthanasia occurs at the request of the person who dies. Non-voluntary euthanasia occurs when the person is unconscious or otherwise unable (for example, a very young baby or a person of extremely low intelligence) to make a meaningful choice between living and dying, and an appropriate person takes the decision on their behalf.
    (iii) Indirect euthanasia
    This means providing treatment (usually to reduce pain) that has the side effect of speeding the patient's death. Since the primary intention is not to kill, this is seen by some people (but not all) as morally acceptable. A justification along these lines is formally called the doctrine of double effect.
    (iv) Assisted suicide
    This usually refers to cases where the person who is going to die needs help to kill themselves and asks for it. It may be something as simple as getting drugs for the person and putting those drugs within their reach.

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    1. awesome answer. beautifully elaborated. :-)

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  6. Different types of euthanasia are:
    i) Active euthanasia: The patient’s death is deliberately caused by a certain act e.g by giving lethal medicine.
    ii) Passive euthanasia: When the death is brought on by omission, e.g, stopping treatment of the patient.
    iii) Indirect euthanasia: Providing treatment to reduce pain which actually speeds up the death of the patient. Its morality is debated.
    iv) Voluntary euthanasia: It occurs at the insistence of the person who dies.
    v) Involuntary euthanasia: When the patient is unconscious or unable to take a decision regarding the same, e.g a lunatic or a child.
    vi) Assisted suicide: These are cases where the patient has consented to death but needs help to do the same e.g, putting medicine within reach of the patient.

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  7. 3. Is Euthanasia legal in India? Which countries in the world have legalised it?
    Although there is no law regarding the same, owing to a recent decision by the Supreme Court, passive euthanasia is legal in India provided that the strict guidelines laid down by the Court are adhered to.
    Only a handful of countries like Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, Ireland, Colombia, Switzerland and the U.S. states of Oregon, Vermont, New Mexico, Montana, California and Washington have allowed euthanasia in some form.

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  8. 6. Euthanasia would act as the "Gift or Mercy" to all those people who are in the clutches of their unending disease. It will halt the brutal custody of painful and hopeless life, which is forcing them to breath without motivation and willingness. The phrase, "there is a will, there is a way", but suppose if there is 'no more will', definitely there won't be any way. The "ethical issue" reminds me of the movie - "GUZAARISH", based on the life conditions and various sentimental dimensions of an individual suffering from the long unending uncomfortable life.
    This Principle justifies giving pain-relief treatment even if it has the effect of shortening life, provided the primary intention was to relieve the pain, not to kill the patient. Moral relativism teaches that there are no absolute moral truths, what is true for you may not necessarily be true for me. It believes and teaches there is no right or wrong, good or bad. Essentially, moral relativism says that anything goes, because life is ultimately without meaning.
    History has shown that once society provides approved guidelines within which it is acceptable to kill another person, it is only a matter of time for those guidelines to be changed and the range of victims extended. Doctors and healthcare authorities are already making decisions to end the lives of patients they deem to have a low quality of life. Opponents of euthanasia say that euthanasia enhances the power and control of doctors, not patients.

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  9. Constitution Bench of Supreme Court consists of atleast five judges of the court to sit and decide cases involving substantial questions of law as to the interpretation of the constitution of india. The Chief Justice of India has the power to constitute such bench. The largest constitution bench has been set up in the landmark judgment of Keshavananda Bharati case consisting of 13 judges. Generally it is of 5 or 7 judges. The recent judgments by constitution bench are NJAC judgment, constitutionality of National Company Law Tribunal, improvisation of the collegiums system etc.

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  10. I HAVE PUBLISHED MY "9TH ANSWER" 6 TIMES BUT IT IS NOT SHOWING ON THE BLOG.

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  11. 5. The Law Commission of India is a non-statutory body constituted by the Government of lndia from time to time. The Commission was originally constituted in 1955 and is re-constituted every three years. The various Law Commissions have been able to make important contribution towards the progressive development and codification of laws of the country. Law Commissions have so far submitted 262 reports. Law Commission of India is an executive body established by an order of the Government of India. Its major function is to work for legal reform. Its membership primarily comprises legal experts, who are entrusted a mandate by the Government. The Commission is established for a fixed tenure and works as an advisory body to the Ministry of Law and Justice.
    The task entrusted upon the Law Commission is to undertake research in law and review of existing laws in India for making reforms therein and enacting new legislations either on a reference made to it by the Central Government or suo-motu. Commission also has to undertake studies and research for bringing reforms in the justice delivery systems for elimination of delay in procedures, speedy disposal of cases, reduction in cost of litigation etc.

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  12. 4. What is a Constitutional Bench of Supreme Court? For what reasons is such a bench constituted? Explain with examples.
    It is a name given to a bench in the Supreme Court consisting of five or more judges where there is a substantial question of interpretation of the Constitution.
    It is provided in Article 145(3) of the Constitution which states that “the minimum number of judges who are to sit for the purpose of deciding any case involving a substantial question of law as to the interpretation of this Constitution or for the purpose of hearing any reference under Article 143 shall be five”.
    Some examples are NJAC case was heard before a 5 judge bench of the SC, Keshavananda Bharati case was heard before a 13-judge bench, etc.

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  13. 8. A non-governmental organization (NGO) is any non-profit, voluntary citizens' group which is organized on a local, national or international level. Task-oriented and driven by people with a common interest, NGOs perform a variety of service and humanitarian functions, bring citizen concerns to Governments, advocate and monitor policies and encourage political particpation through provision of information. Some are organized around specific issues, such as human rights, environment or health. They provide analysis and expertise, serve as early warning mechanisms and help monitor and implement international agreements. Their relationship with offices and agencies of the United Nations system differs depending on their goals, their venue and the mandate of a particular institution.
    An association of persons with non profit motive may be registered under any of the following Indian Acts:
    1. As a Charitable Trust
    2. As a Society under the Societies Registration Act
    3. As a licensed company under section 25 of the Companies Act, 1956
    The role of any NGO is to contribute to development of the nation through involving in various issues like- Education, Health, Livelihood, Micro -finance, Human rights and many more. It is upto the NGO to decide issues on which they want to work for. We can find several good NGOs in parts of India which are working not only on charity model but also on Rights based model. The charity model of NGO involves charity interventions like providing immediate relief to the community. It can be in form of Food, clothes, medicine, etc. While the Right based model involves building the capacity of local communities to stand up for their rights and questioning the discrepancy in the system and keeping track of development as promised by the Government.
    NGOs contribute to a civil society by providing a means for expressing and actively addressing the varied and complex needs of society. They are seen as serving several essential functions: It promotes pluralism, diversity, and tolerance in society while protecting and strengthening cultural, ethnic, religious, linguistic, and other identities. It advances science and thought; develop culture and art; protect the environment; and support all activities and concerns that make a vibrant civil society. It motivates citizens in all aspects of society to act, rather than depend on state power and beneficence. IT creates an alternative to centralized state agencies and provide services with greater independence and flexibility.

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  14. 5. What is Law Commission? How is it constituted? Is it a Constitutional body?
    It is a non-statutory and non-constitutional Executive body formulated by the order of the Government of India on an ad-hoc basis from time to time having advisory powers.
    It is constituted by an order of the Government of India. It consists of a full time Chairperson, four full time members, Secretary (Department of Legal Affairs, as ex-officio member), Secretary (Legislative Department as ex officio member) and not more than 5 part time members.
    It is not a constitutional body since it has not been referred to anywhere in the Constitution.

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  15. 1. Euthanasia is generally called mercy killing, supposed to be administered to terminally ill persons. It provides a dignified way of dying , it is an idea which supports a persons right over his life. Whether he can decide to end his life rather than suffer for a very long time.

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  16. 6. What are the ethical concerns related to Euthanasia?
    Ethical concerns of euthanasia are:
    i) With rising healthcare costs and the number of sick people, legalized euthanasia may give way to coerced euthanasia.
    ii) Whether people in permanent vegetative state, suffering from advanced Alzheimer’s, mentally retarded should be allowed to be euthanized for greater good?
    iii) Whether it is moral to use drugs which sedate and ultimately result in quicker death?
    iv) Should euthanasia be encouraged due to the fact that more and more people are in need of organ transplants who may have a better quality of life?
    v) Does euthanasia include the right to withhold treatment against wishes of a terminally ill patient?
    vi) Once a definition is established about who should be euthanized, it is only a matter of time before the definition expands.

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  17. 7. points in favor of Euthanasia:
    a) people have a right to self-determination, and thus should be allowed to choose their own fate;
    b) assisting a subject to die might be a better choice than requiring that they continue to suffer;
    c) permitting euthanasia will not necessarily lead to unacceptable consequences;
    d) A terminally ill person becomes both emotional and financial burden on his / her family;
    e) sometimes person's suffering may not be known to his family. They may be causing more suffering by forcing him to live.

    Points against of euthanasia:

    a) all deaths are not painful;
    b) alternatives, like better treatment, use of effective pain relief, are available;
    c) the distinction between active or passive euthanasia is a significant ethical dilemma;
    d) legalising euthanasia will place society on a slippery slope, which may lead to unacceptable consequences.

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    1. some more points against euthanasia:

      1) Human life is the most valuable thing. Nobody has the right to end one's unless to protect the lives of the other, that too with the procedure established by law.
      2) It is the duty of the government to ensure safety and security of the individual. Killing of her own subjects is unethical.
      3) May be in future medical advancements find cure for today's incurable diseases or disorders.

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  18. 2. Basically on the basis of consent of the patients there are three types of Euthanasia:

    i) Voluntary Euthanasia-
    Euthanasia conducted with the consent of the patient is termed voluntary euthanasia.
    ii) Non-voluntary euthanasia-
    Euthanasia conducted where the consent of the patient is unavailable is termed non-voluntary euthanasia.
    iii) In-voluntary Euthanasia-
    Euthanasia conducted against the will of the patient is termed involuntary euthanasia.

    These three types of euthanasia can be further divided into Active or Passive Euthanasia:

    Active Euthanasia: with the use of lethal substances such as administering a lethal injection.
    Passive Euthanasia: by removing life supports such as antibiotics, ventilation, or something that is keeping the patient alive.

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  19. 6. Euthanasia is a topic which touches various aspects of our society. It requires a focussed perspective considering all the pros and cons. The dilemmas regarding the legal issues surrounding euthanasia are often due to the ethical aspects which raises question about the rights of a person to take someone else’s life. The debate over the ethicality of euthanasia is a never-ending one. Hence, to resolve this conflict between pain and death, the sooner that a comprehensive law on the subject is enacted, the better it will be for society. Even if permitted, euthanasia should be used in deserving cases only, that too sincerely, honestly and consciously under strict control and supervision of a statutory body.

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  20. 3. in India though active euthanasia is not permissible, passive euthanasia is allowed.
    *Previously in 2011, in Aruna Shanbaug case the Court had ruled in favour of passive euthanasia and the law ministry had opined that the SC’s “directions should be followed”.
    *In its landmark 2011 verdict that was notable for its progressive, humane and sensitive treatment of the complex interplay of individual dignity and social ethics, the Supreme Court laid down a broad legal framework.
    *It ruled out any backing for active euthanasia, or the taking of a specific step such as injecting the patient with a lethal substance, to put an end to a patient’s suffering, as that would be clearly illegal.
    *It made it mandatory that every instance should get the approval of a High Court Bench, based on consultation with a panel of medical experts.

    # Euthanasia is legal in Colombia, Luxembourg, Canada and Belgium.
    # in some countries like Philippines, Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom euthanasia has been criminalized.

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  21. This comment has been removed by the author.

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  22. Euthanasia means good death. It is intentionally taking away one's life especially by people who are suffering from incurable disease. This is generally done by painless means.

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  23. 5.
    *Law Commission of India is an executive body established by an order of the Government of India.
    *Its major function is to work for legal reform.
    *The First Law Commission was established in 1834 by the British Government under the Chairmanship of Lord Macaulay.
    * Indian Penal Code and Criminal Procedure Code were passed and enacted on the recommendation of the first law commission.

    The Law Commission of India, is an ad hoc body which work under the instruction of Ministry of Law and Justice.

    It generally acts as the initiation point for law reform in the country.

    The Commission's regular staff consists of about a dozen research personnel of different ranks and varied experiences with a small group of secretarial staff looks after the administration side of the Commission's operations.

    The recommendations of the commission are not binding on the government.

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  24. 5th century BC ancient greeks and romans supported Euthanasia.
    12th century Christian went against this philosophy considering life is given by god and cannot be taken away by individuals and tried reinforcing the Hippocratic Oath.(Oath taken by medical officers that they will not administer and substance which might kill the patients).
    17th century- the common law prohibits suicide and attempt to suicide.
    18th century-Renaissance and reforamtion started challenging church's authority to oppose euthanasia.
    1828 new york became the one of the first place which outwardly rejected assisted suicide.
    1870 Publically advocating of Euthanasia was started by Samuael williams.
    1885 American medical association opposes Euthanasia.
    1915 Dr.Haiselden allows euthanasia of a baby who was born deformed.
    1940 Nazis use of involunatry euthanasia was being condemend by the world.
    1976 The new Jersey Supreme Court in the case of Quinlan ruled that respiratory system could be removed from coma patient.
    1990 The supreme court of USA in Cruzan case ruled that a person has the right to refuse life saving medical service.
    2001- Netherlands legalizes Euthanasia.
    2008 - Luxembourg legalizes physician assisted euthanasia.
    2014-Belgium legalizes Euthanasia.

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  25. 9. Under the Fundamental Rights Art 21 one gets the right to life which is guaranteed by our constitution, in my point of view its corollary should also be permitted. If one gets the right of dignified life one must have the right to dignified death. A brain dead person or terminally ill or in vegetative state may be given proper treatment, better healthcare facalities but his pain, sufferings can not be lessened.
    Legality of euthanasia has been a topic of much debate, which has caused serious discussion around the world. The opponents argue that in case it is legalised , then its misuse may become rampant . Specially young couples may try to kill their old and dependent parents or grandparents in lust of property.
    Therefore in my opinion every person has right to die but with suitable restrictions, such that the event does not cause severe damage or harm to other persons dependent or otherwise.

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    1. You should also read the Judgement of Gian Kaur V State of Punjab, wherein the Constitutional Bench of Supreme Court gave its reason as to why Right to life doesn't include right to die, but it includes right to dignified death. This judgement overruled P.rathinam case wherein it was held right to life includes right to die. I think it will give you the other side of the debate in a more comprehensive manner.

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  26. Various types of Euthanasia is as follows:
    1.Voluntary euthanasia where the patient or any person capable of giving consent, gives his/her consent to terminate his/her life. The consent should be free from coercion, fraud and so on and so forth.
    2.Non-voluntary- Where the patient is incapable to give a valid consent. for example children, mentally ill and so on and so forth.
    3.Involuntary- where euthanasia is carried out against the will of the patient.
    4.Further all the above category could be further sub divided into active and passive. Active is when lethal substances or any other substance is administered to the patient to carry out Euthanasia. Passive is when life support or other essential that has to be maintained is taken away from the patient.

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  27. Euthanasia is legal in India after 2011 Supreme court Judgment. But it has to be noted that only passive Euthanasia is allowed and active Euthanasia in any form is illegal in India.
    The other Countries to legalize Euthanasia are Netherlands,Belgium,Ireland,Luxembourg,Switzerland, Germany, Japan, Albania, and certain states of USA.

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  28. The law commission of India is an executive body which established mainly to act as an advisory body. The first law commission was established by the charter act of 1833. It strives for bringing legal reforms and mainly comprises of people who are legal experts. The current chairman of the commission is Ajit Prakash Jha who was a former chief Justice of Delhi high court.

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